CreateSpace A subsidiary of Amazon. The easiest and least expensive way to get your book into print and distributed on Amazon. Free ISBN available. They're really quick, too. If you'd like a greater distribution than they provide it can sometimes be a good plan to purchase your own ISBN from Bowker, go through their very affordable proofing process, use them for distribution on Amazon, and then utilize LightningSource to utilize both companies distributon networks. As long as your book uses the same files and is the same format you can use the same ISBN for both.
LightningSource A bit more complex and the proofing process can be quite a bit more espensive. But it's the largest distribution network and it's not tied exclusively to Amazon. Getting set up with them requires more paperwork and can take a little longer. They also have more printing options, like matte covers and hardback books. If you're considering working with them it can be very informative and time-saving to purchase POD for Proft, by Aaron Shephard, or at least check out his blog. It's starting to get a little dated, and we totally disagree with his ideas about book covers, but there's a lot of nitty-gritty details about dealing with POD companies and the process of self-publishing that are valuable to know.
Bookmobile Great people, easy to work with. Fast.
Edition One Books Specializing in creating books for art and design professionals. If you're looking to do elegant short-run books with wonderful accents like foil-stamping, inset cover images, and screen printing, this is the place. Fun to work with and a designer's dream. Definitely not a fast-food joint.
Traditional offset printing
Imaging Hawaii Yep, they're based in Hawaii, but have presses in Calgary, too, and can work with you as a liason to printing in China. Easy to work with, especially if you contact Terry Lau, who will always go the extra mile to make you happy.
Friesens A Canadian printer that does exceptionally fine books. One of the more environmentally responsible printing companies.
Sentinel Printing Based in Minnesota. Easy to work with. Great quality.
Hemlock Printers Another great printing company with presses along the northwest coast of the U.S. and Canada.